skull University of Minnesota
Anthropolgy Labs


About the Data Set

This sample dataset consists of three-dimensional cranial landmark data from two African apes: Gorilla gorilla gorilla & Pan troglodytes troglodytes. Each species is represented by twenty adult specimens, evenly divided by sex. Labels for each specimen follow this basic convention: the first 3 letters indicate taxon; the fourth letter gives the sex of the specimen; the three numerical digits represent an arbitrary specimen designation; the last letter references the data collector. For example, "Gggf015k" is Gorilla gorilla gorilla female number 015 collected by McNulty.

All specimens were aligned using a generalized Procrustes analysis performed in Morpheus et al. (Slice, 1998). The landmarks are given below in the order that they appear in the datafile. Each landmark is defined by three coordinates. Therefore, opisthocranion corresponds to x1, x2, x3, while right porion is x4, x5, x6, and so on. Centroid sizesCentroid sizes for these configurations were computed in tpsSmall.

The sample data set was collected by me and is provided here to help facilitate the use and understanding of the routines. Researchers are welcome to incorporate these data in actual analyses, but I request that you inform me of your intent (solely for my personal record-keeping).

Landmarks (in order):
  1. Opisthocranion
  2. Porion (right)
  3. Jugale (right)
  4. Frontomalare temporale (right)
  5. Mid-torus superior (right)
  6. Zygomaxillare (right)
  7. Bregma
  8. Glabella
  9. Rhinion
  10. Anterior attachment of nasal septum
  11. Alveolare
  12. Porion (left)
  13. Jugale (left)
  14. Frontomalare temporale (left)
  15. Mid-torus superior (left)
  16. Zygomaxillare (left)
  17. Basion
  18. Hormion
  19. Distal M3 (right)
  20. Distal M3 (left)


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Sample Dataset

SAS Routines

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